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Tuesday, 30 April 2019

The Admiral Duncan bombing - 20 years on

A sad coincidence but on my previous peregrination which took in the southern edge of Soho I also passed the Admiral Duncan pub in Old Compton Street just down the road from the plaque that marked the great Dangeroo Flood. Twenty years ago today 3 people, Andrea Dykes, Nick Moore and John Light were killed and 78 were wounded by the third in a series of nail bombs left by a right-wing extremist. The pub was crowded on the start of the May bank holiday and this accounts for the relatively high number injured. As this was the third in the series there was a considerable public information campaign in place. There was even a poster in the toilet warning of the possibility of an attack. The bomb exploded at 6:37 pm when the bag that contained it was being investigated by the pub manager.The previous two bombs left in Brixton Market and Brick lane targeted the black and asian communities respectively. These, fortunately resulted in no fatalities although 48 and 13 people were wounded after the bomber was noticed in Brixton, where his bomb was moved by a smallholder to a less crowded area and the police were called. In the case of the Brick Lane bomb when the bomber first set the bomb for Saturday rather than Sunday when a street market takes place and after the bomb was placed in a car boot in an attempt to deliver the bomb to a local police station. The Brixton attack is marked by a plaque was I have not yet seen. The Admiral Duncan has a small plaque placed by Queer Heritage, who place plaques marking places in the struggle for LGBTQ rights in 2017. Andrea Dykes, Nick Moore and John Light are also commemorated in the churchyard of St. Anne;s in Wardour Street.

Monday, 22 April 2019

The Great Dangeroo Flood and the Kymaerica Project

There is, above a non-descript coffee bar a square, black and gold plaque that marks the high water point of the "Great Dangeroo Flood" which it describes as "one of the worst floods of En'kymhuirian times". The plaque goes on to note that the Tehachapi people after two years at sea on their rafts of asphalt made their new home here after observing the familiar stars of their home overhead as the waters receded. The plaque was located by the Kymaerica project founded by Geographer-at-large Eames Demetrios which "is... a global project that tells the stories of this parallel world through books, performances, Internet, embroideries, guided collaborations, but perhaps most distinctively through installations—especially bronze plaques and historic sites that honor the parallel world in our linear world." The plaque then, marks a fictional event with a physical presence in the real world. There are other plaques in London, one of which off the Whitechapel Road has already been spotted. This marks "Angel Alley and Surrounds" where "the formidable Esther Tabran first saw the figure of Crown Prince Jyorge stepping out of Georges Yard. The website for the Kymaerica Project is, sadly, outdated. It notes 83 plaques being put in place , in 15 countries on 5 continents. The figures cited however refer to November 2011 and so may not be accurate. There is at least one other plaque in London which will need to be visited at some point. If there is one area of London that deserves a plaque to a non-existent event then Soho, home of the strange, moreso even than the rest of London. Old Compton Street marks the southern boundary of the area. An area that has traditionally housed incomers and outsiders - the Greeks, the Italians, the gay community and he entertainment industry although of late under a process of gentrification the area has certainly lost its edge.

Sunday, 10 March 2019

The Cornish Rebellion - 1497

A big thank you at the top to Mr and Mrs Kilburn who put us up and treated us to a cracking meal at the Five Rivers Indian Restaurant. They live in Plumstead and Wayne met us at the Woolwich DLR station and we decamped to Greenwich with the intent of taking in the (rapidly changing)London skyline from Greenwich Park. Alighting as we did on Charlton Way at the southern edge of Greenwich on our way through into the park on the brick wall I found a small bi-lingual plaque marking the site of the Battle of Deptford Bridge in 1497. Not exactly a well-publicised affair this one, a century after the Peasant's Revolt of 1381 and Jack Cade's rebellion this forgotten conflict involved some 35,000 men, 10,000 or so Cornish rebels and 25,000 of the King's forces and resulted in a thorough drubbing of the Cornishmen who lacked both cavalry and artillery. The rebellion came about in protest against Henry VII's raising of war taxes which abrogated Cornwall's traditional exemption. It began in the Bodmin area and was led by Michael Joseph, a blacksmith and Thomas Flamank, a lawyer who was MP for Bodmin in 1492. These two gathered support and marched East into Devon gathering support as they went. The army declared its grievances at Wells in Somerset where the rebels were joined by James Touchet, the seventh Baron Audley and continued unopposed towards the capital through Salisbury and then Winchester. The first clash occurred outside Guildford as the king drew his forces back from an intended incursion into Scotland. The plaque marks the place where the rebels met their end. After a significant number of desertions the rebels met the kings army on 17 June 1497. The royal army was divided into three under Lords Oxford, Essex,Suffolk and Daubeney and these routed the rebel army. Estimates of the Cornish dead range from 200 to 2,000. The leaders were captured, Joseph in Greenwich and Flamank and Audley at the site of the battle. They received the king's mercy which means that Joseph and Flamank were hanged at Tyburn on 27 June 1497 rather than being hanged, drawn and quartered whereas Audley as a gentleman was beheaded at Tower Hill. The quincentennial of the battle in 1997 was marked by a Keskerdh Kernow - a march that reenacted the long march from the West and the installation of the plaque. As I was in company of the Wayne and my other half (aka Mrs Hobbldy) I thought better of detouring in search of further plaques, Greenwich with its royal connections being a bit of a centre for people of historic interest and instead we descended Greenwich Park, moving from the Eastern to the Western Hemisphere, sadly we didn't get to do the straddling the Greenwich Meridian photo op as Greenwich Observatory had nicely decided to fence off the Meridian Line and charge admittance. This disappointment was however mitigated by the free National Maritime Museum at the bottom of the hill in the magnificent Wren designed building which was previously The Royal Hospital for Seamen at Greenwich, completed in 1705 as a counterpart to the Chelsea Hospital which provided for veterans of the British Army.Sadly there was filming at the old Greenwich Naval College, now part of the University of Greenwich which meant no stroll through its amazing riverside location - a little reminder that in times gone by the Thames was London'a main thoroughfare. Sadly our little jaunt went little further ending at the very nice, and rather overpriced surroundings of Greenwich market.

Saturday, 29 December 2018

Clapham Common Deep Shelter, The Drum and the Balham Station Bombing

The Brothers Hartnall's recent show at the Hammersmith Apollo meant a night in the smoke courtesy of Airbnb in W6. This allowed a lovely wander south of the river around Clapham Common and then a perambulation south to Balham Station on the day after the night before. We're going to have to backtrack here however and begin at the end of my days walk at Balham Underground Station which sits astride Balham High Road and was built in 1926 as part of the extension of the City and South London Railway to a design by Charles Holden, Frank Pick's architect of choice who had previously worked on war cemeteries in France and who brought his simple, modernist style to London Transport infrastructure. Like many of the stations on the Tube network Balham was used by the civilian population as a bomb shelter during World War II. This was initially discouraged by the government who believed that the population would remain in the Tube network after the bombing had ended. At the start of the Blitz however on 8th September 1940 a crowd broke through the locked gates at Liverpool St Station and the day afterwards the Minister for Home Security rescinded the policy and the population sought protection in the relentless bombing thereafter. On the Booking Hall at Balham are two plaques noting the events of 14-15 October 1940, when a 1,400 kg fell on the road above the north end of the platform, leaving a crater into which a double-decker bus crashed providing an iconic image of the Blitz. The tunnel partially collapsed and was filed with earth and water from fractured water and sewage pipes. Sixty-six were killed in an event that was hushed up by the authorities for fear of dissuading the civilian population from seeking shelter in the tube network. The event was used in Ian McEwan's novel Atonement, although the incorrect date is used in both the book and its film adaptation. These issues arelso noted further along the network by a very swish black and white Clapham Society plaque on the corner of Clapham High Street and Clapham Park Road which marks the entrance to Clapham Deep Shelter which was built in late 1942 after the government set up the London Passenger Transport Board who in turn came up with the idea of five deep shelters south of the river at at Clapham South, Clapham Common, Clapham North, Stockwell and Oval – and five to the north. These, it was intended would exist under the existing train tunnels but be connected to the existing Tube stations.The shelters were intended to have twin parallel tunnels 5 metres in diameter and 365 meters long divided into two decks that would accommodate 8000 people. By the time these were finished however the Blitz was all but over and the tunnels were repurposed, first as accommodation for American troops and after the invasion of Europe as a government installation and so was fitted out as offices and an extensive system of teleprinters, telephones and other telecommunications equipment were installed. After the war the Clapham Common shelter was used as an archive for government records until its decommissioning in 1952. This however was not the end of the line so to speak. In 2012 the site was re-employed as a hydroponic farm where produce can be growth for local use without racking up food miles. The Clapham South shelter situated on Balham Hill was used differently firstly as temporary accommodation for some of Britain's first postwar Caribbean immigrants who arrived on the ship MV Empire Windrush in 1948 as well as hotel accommodation for the Festival of Britain in 1951 and for visitors to the Queen’s coronation in 1953.

Thursday, 25 October 2018

The memorialisation problem

It's an interesting one isn't it? Someone - lets call him ooohhhh Cecil Rhodes, puts up a statue to himself with the intent of being remembered in a particular way. As an advancer of civilisation, a visionary, a doer, an all-round good egg. He establishes a scholarship at a prestigious university like Oxford to "promote unity between English speaking nations and instil a sense of civic-minded leadership and moral fortitude in future leaders irrespective of their chosen career paths." His ultimate goal was ""the furtherance of the British Empire, for the bringing of the whole uncivilised world under British rule, for the recovery of the United States, for the making the Anglo-Saxon race but one Empire." The scholarship was taken by (among others) Bill Clinton, Tony Abbott, Bob Hawke and Malcolm Turnbull of Australia,John Turner of Canada, Dom Mintoff of Malta, Norman Manley of Jamaica and Wasim Sajjad of Pakistan. From the beginning the scholarship was contentious: both women and black Africans were excluded from the programme. Black Africans were admitted to the programme after pressure from former scholarship recipients in 1971, women only in 1977, 75 years after the scholarship was established. In 2015 Ntokozo Qwabe, a Rhodes scholar himself called for (among other things) the removal of a statue of Rhodes from Oriel College, Oxford. Rhodes' memory then may not we what he originally envisioned but he IS remembered. This post, however is not about Cecil Rhodes but about John Passmore Edwards. You know? John Passmore Edwards? No? This is man who was described in an obituary in the Times of 24 April 1911 as doing "more good in his time than almost any other of his contemporaries" and rated as "Amongst the late Victorian philanthropists, whose motives [were] beyond reproach [and whose] benefactions expressed deeply held and intelligent convictions about conditions of progress in his society".. A man instrumental in the construction over the space 14 years of hospitals, drinking fountains, libraries,schools, convalescent homes and art galleries. He also contributed to the WEA (Worker's Educational Association) furthering the opportunities available to those lower down the social scale. His home in leafy Hampstead is marked by an English Heritage plaque in 1988. Three of his works in London are also marked: a drinking fountain south of the river in front of Christ Church graveyard on Blackfriars Road and two libraries one in East London on the corner of Gladstone Place and Roman Road, the other recently spotted by Shepherds Bush green erected by the Hammersmith and Fulham Historic Buildings Group. The building on which is it affixed is now the Bush Theatre. The building was designed by Maurice Adams who Edwards used for several of his projects. Edwards' His largesse is even more apparent in the West Country where he established libraries in Newton Abbot in Devon and Bodmin, Camborne, Falmouth, Launceston, Liskeard, Penzance, Redruth, St Ives and Truro in Cornwall. His roots were Cornish, he was born between Redruth and Truro in 1823, the son of a carpentee. He was educated in the village school and became a journalist, later moving to London to take advantage of the nineteenth-century boom in journal publication. He became involved in many social causes: the reform of the Corn Laws, the abolition of capital punishment, the suppression of the opium trade and the abolition of flogging in the services and opposed military action in the Crimea and in South Africa publishing polemical leaflets such as'Intellectual Tollbars' (1854) protesting taxes on paper and newspapers and also 'The War: a Blunder and a Crime' (1855). After several false starts in publishing he eventually bought the Echo newspaper in 1876 which espoused social causes and a liberal philosophy (eventually selling part of his interest to Andrew Carnegie) and became Liberal MP for Salisbury in 1880. He quickly became disenchanted with political life however, doing his utmost to better the world in an extra-parliamentary capacity. It is perhaps sad that his name is not as well known as Rhodes'.

Thursday, 29 June 2017

Borough Market

My how the time flies. A full nine months later and here we are again. The latest wander courtesy of Andrew Duncan's Walking London was the Bankside and Southwark walk. A favourite area, revisited after our visit to Crossbones Graveyard last year and one of massive historical interest. Southwark, south of the river provides a counterpoint to the City of London, the city of commerce, the city of labour,the city of money-making. Southwark on the other hand is where purses were emptied. The diversions of the area are perhaps not to the tastes of the present day encompassing as they did animal cruelty; bear baiting and cock fighting, boozing, whoring and perhaps worst of all (at least as far as the Puritans were concerned) -- playhouses. The Globe was transported from Shoreditch by the Lord Chamberlains Men in 1599 led by Charles Burbage and including little known thesp. William Shakespeare. The Rose, constructed in 1587 is also commemorated by a plaque. The part played by Sam Wanamaker in the reconstructed Globe is marked as is several possible sites for the theatre although the site which sis mooted as the most likely is Anchor Terrace on Park Street where archaeological remains of Shakespeare's "wooden O" have been found. The Theatre burned to the ground in 1613 after a spark from a cannon used in a performance set fire to the thatch.Fortunately noone was harmed although one spectator did reportedly have his breeches set on fire, fortunately extinguished with bottled ale. The trip also took in Borough Market, home to Grade A Masala Dosa and pretty good (though not up to Italian standard) gelato -- a big thank you to Frigidarium for ruining me for life as far as Icy Cream goodness is concerned. Borough Market stands in the shadow of Southwark cathedral, originally an Augustinian priory built in 1106 - it retains its Gothic floorplan although its nave dates back only to the late nineteenth century. In fact the structure only became a cathedral in 1905 with the foundation of diocese of Southwark in 1905. The cathedral has links to Southwark's actors, Shakespeare's brother was buried there in 1607, Fletcher and Massinger were buried there. Theres also a local American connection, John Harvard's family ran the Queen's Head Inn on Borough High Street, the main route south and therefore starting point for the pilgrimage to Canterbury as recorded by Chaucer -- "“It happened in that season that one day /In Southwark, at The Tabard, as I lay / Ready to go on pilgrimage and start /For Canterbury, most devout at heart /At night there came into that hostelry / Some nine and twenty in a company /Of sundry folk happening then to fall /In fellowship, and they were pilgrims all /That towards Canterbury meant to ride/ The rooms and stables of the inn were wide / They made us easy, all was of the best.” Equally buried a world away from his roots in Southwark Cathedral Mahomet Weyonomon Sachem of the Mohegans of Connecticut was buried in this churchyard 1736, a rememberance of the fact that London has always been a world city. More recent events were also evidenced sadly. The sight of armed police freaks me out on holiday. To see them on the streets of London was quite a shock -- the area was also in receipt of dozens of remembrance hearts - a project launched through twitter as an answer to the appalling events of 3 June. Happily normalcy seems to have triumphed with Borough thronged with people - gay straight male female black white yellow brown - a living rebuttal of the dicks who seek to divide us.

Sunday, 4 September 2016

Londons

After my last little digression I'm minded to talk less about London and more about Londons. All existing alongside each other, on top of each other, under and over each other. Constantly updating itself in order to deal with the changes taking place around itself, sometimes of course initiated within the city itself. Perhaps one of the most important of these changes is marked by a small blue rectangular plaque in a small and obscure sidestreet situated between Cornhill and Lombard Street. The plaque reads "on this street between 1680 and 1778 stood Jonathan's Coffee House, the principal meeting place of the City's stockbrokers". Here it was a little after the Great Fire of London destroyed the old city that new systems of trade and business grew up. These systems have spread across the globe and are now shown in the skylines of the world - the market, modern capitalism started here in this tiny cramped alley. The fact that this was a coffee house is not entirely insignificant. Coffee, one of the commodities that can loosely be bundled together under the title "colonial groceries). These groceries; coffee, tobacco, cotton and most significantly sugar were grown in the West Indies, an area that the powers of the world at the time jealously guarded. The profits to be made from these crops was enormous but the risks were high and the returns not always immediate. What this meant is that a whole raft of ancillary services quickly appeared around these producers; insurance, credit banking and investment houses to share the risk. Underpinning this industry were those who worked and died in enormous numbers in the West Indies, while slavery was a social institution dating back to the classical world however chattel slavery where those subject to the system are effectively treated as just another animal (a belief that was strengthened through pseudo-science), another resource to be exploited. They died throughout misuse, starvation and disease transplanted from Africa as they had no natural immunity to West Indian diseases. While some plantation owners lived in the West Indies many were absentee landlords reaping a reward from their investments. The vast sums made subsidised extravagant lifestyles, they purchased political and social positions. Positions that ensured that they could influence those in power. This also meant hat funds were available for investment in other industries, other trading ventures. Such ventures were orchestrated at places such as Jonathan's Coffee House. Sometimes these were moneymakers. Sometimes, as with the South Sea Bubble... they didn't. In 1748 Jonathan's burnt down. In 1761 a club was formed was formed to trade stocks. In 1773 the club built its on building in Sweetings Alley. This eventually became the institution of upright gentlemen that we call the Stock Exchange